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Mas Cotek

Mas Cotek  
Scientific Name Oicus deltoidea Jack 
Family Moraceae
Common Names Mistletoe Fig, Mistletoe Rubber Plant
Mas Cotek  

Mas Cotek is a small perennial herb, growing up to about 2 m tall (Hasan, 2006). The different shapes of the leaves represent different varieties some having a rounded shape and others having an elongated egg shape. The color at the top of the leaf is shining green while underneath, the surface color is golden yellow with black spots in between the leaf veins. Mas Cotek plant species are male and female. The leaves of female species are big and round in shape, while the male species are small, round and long in shape (Wikipedia).

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According to traditional medicine, parts of F. Deltoidea plant such as it’s leaves, fruits, stems and roots  posses healing, palliative and preventative properties (Wikipedia). The dried leaves are brown in colour, odourless and have slight taste (Globinmed).

It is an evergreen shrub. It can grow up to 2m tall.

{slider=Geographical Distribution}

Native to Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia (USDA).

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List of chemicals extracted for Ficus deltoidea leaves: Aqueous extract: vitexin, isovitexin (Abdullah et al., 2009a, Abdullah et al., 2009b), flavan-3-ol , flavone glycosides, chalcone, phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, proanthocyanidins (Omar et al., 2011).

Methanol: moretenol, rutin, narigenin, quercetin (Mohd Lip et al., 2009, Ong et al., 2011).

Essential Oil: 6-methyl-5-heptane-2-one, mycrene, cis-furanoid linalool ocide, trans-furanoid linalool ocide, linalool, limone, dendrolasine, α-ylangene, α-copaene, β-bourbonene, 1,5-diepi-β-bourbonene, β-cubebene, β-elemene, α-gurjunene, α-cisbergamotene, β-aryophyllene, α-santalene, α-humulene, bergamotene, alloaromadendrene, aciphyllene, germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene β, cyanogen, octaethylene glycol, hexagol (Grison-Pige et al., 2002, Lee et al., 2011).

Ficus deltoidea plant is mainly used by women in traditional medicine especially as afterbirth treatment. The leaves is believed to help to contract the uterine and vaginal mucles, to regain body strenght, improve blood circulation and treating disorder related to menstrual cylce (Burkhill and Haniff, 1930; Fasihuddin and Din, 2002).

Pharmacological properties of Ficus deltoidea:

Antinociceptive (Sulaiman et al 2008), Anti cancer (Akhir et al 2011), Anti inflammatory (Zakaria et al., 2012), Anti oxidant (Abdullah et al. 2009b; Misbah et al., 2013), Anti-bacterial (Uyub et al., 2010; Samah et al.,2012), Anti-diabetic (Misbah et al., 2013), Wound healing activity (Abdulla et al., 2010).

The no-observed adverse effect level of F. Deltoidea in rats was determines to be 2500 mg/kg (Farsi E. et al 2013).

Abdulla, M.A., Abdul-Aziz Ahmed, K., Abu-Luhoom, F.M., Muhanid, M. 2010. Role of Ficus deltoidea extract in the enhancement of wound healing in experimental rats. Biomedical Research 21(3): 241-245. Abdullah Z., Hussain K., Ismail Z., Mat Ali R. 2009a. Anti-inflammatory activity of standardised extracts of leaves of three varieties of Ficus deltoidea. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research 1(3): 100-105. Abdullah Z., Hussain K., Ismail Z., Mat Ali R., Pisar M., Jamaludin Z., Sahdan R. 2009b. Evaluation of extracts of leaf of three Ficus deltoidea varieties for antioxidant activities and secondary metabolites. Pharmacognosy Research, 1: 216 –223. Akhir, N.A.M., Chua, L.S., Majid, F.A.A., Sarmidi, M.R. 2011. Cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ficus deltoidea on human ovarian carcinoma cell line. Br J Med Med Res.1(4): 397-409. Burkill, I. H., Haniff, M. 1930. Malay village medicine. Garden’s Bulletin 6(2): 67-332. Fasihuddin, B.A., Din, L.B. 2002. Medicinal plants used by various ethnic groups in Sabah. Paper presented at The French Malaysian Symposium on Natural Products. Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. P.85. Farsi E., A. Shafaei, S.Y.Hor, M.B. Khadeer Ahamed, M. F. Yam, M.Z. Asmawi & Z. Ismail (2013). Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves. Clinics 68 (6), 865-875. Globinmed. http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=101982:ficus-deltoidea-jack&catid=209&Itemid=143#r7 Accessed in 10 April 2014. Grison-Pige,L., Hossaert-McKey,M., Bessiere, J.M. 2002. Fig volatile compounds - a first comparative study. Phytochemistry 61:61-71. Hassan, Dr. W. E. 2006. Healing Herbs of Malaysia Kuala Lumpur: Federal Land Development Agency. ISBN 978-983-99544-2-5 Lee, S.W., Wee, W., Yong, J.F.S., Syamsumir, D.F. 2011. Characterization of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer property and chemical of Ficus deltoidea Jack leaf extract. Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature 1(1): 1-6. Misbah, H., Aziz, A.A., Aminudin, N. 2013. Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ficus deltoidea fruit extracts and fractions. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13:118. Mohd Lip, J., Nazrul Hisham.D., Arif Zaidi, Musa, Y., Ahmad, A.W., Normah, A., Sharizan, A. 2009. Isolation and identification of moretenol from Ficus deltoidea leaves. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science 37(2): 195-201. Omar M.H., Mullen, W., Crozier, A. 2011. Identification of proanthocyanidin dimers, and trimers, flavone c-glycosides and antioxidants in Ficus deltoide, a Malaysian herbal tea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(4): 1363-1369. Ong, S.L., Ling A.P.K., Poospooragi, R., Moosa, S. 2011. Production of flavonoid compounds in cell cultures of Ficus deltoidea as influenced by medium composition. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 1(2): 62-74. Samah, O.A., Zaidi, N.T.A., Sule, A.B. 2012. Antimicrobial activity of Ficus deltoidea Jack (Mas Cotek). Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 25(3): 675-678. Sulaiman, M.R., Hussain, M. K., Zakaria, Z.M., Somchit, M.N., Moin, S., Tengku Mohamad, T. A.S., Israf A., Daud A. 2008. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of Ficus deltoidea aqueous extract. Fitoterapia , 79 (7-8):557-561. Uyub, A.M., Nwachukwu, I.N., Azlan, A.A., Fariza S. S. 2010. In-vitro antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of selected medicinal plant extracts from Penang Island Malaysia. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 8: 95-106 Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficus_deltoidea. Accessed in 10 April 2014. Zakaria, Z. A., Hussain, M. K., Mohamad, A. S., Abdullah, F. C., Sulaiman, M. R. 2012. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Aqueous Extract of Ficus Deltoidea. Biol Res Nurs 14(1): 90-97. Manuscript Prepared by: Manorenjitha Malar a/p Sivanathan & Norzainah Ahmad